Friday, February 7, 2020
Marketing plan - Coursework Example The service-profit chain is a concept introduced in the Harvard Business Review in 1994. A book describing the concept was published in 1997. According to the description, in the book, the service-profit chain serves to demonstrate the existing relationship between service excellence and a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s financial growth and performance. According to this concept, profitability and revenue growth come because of customer loyalty. Without customer satisfaction, loyalty does not result. Therefore, organizations strive to ensure that their services exhibit a high-perceived value to the customer in a bid to increase customer satisfaction. It is impossible to achieve high levels of customer satisfaction if the employees do not exhibit high levels of commitment and outstanding competencies (Yee et al., 2009). Therefore, organizations seek to hire individuals with remarkable competencies and empower them through training programs in order to increase their productivity. Empowered employee s are more likely to serve customers in an exemplary manner. The Starbucks Company has relied on the service-profit chain in order to register the evident financial performance. The company invests in human resource development through training programs that empower employee to deliver high-quality customer service. Over the years, the company has applied service innovation in order to ensure that employees serve as a valuable link between the organization and the customers. The company regards employees as partners, a factor that triggers employee satisfaction. The satisfied employees have worked for Starbucks for a long time registering high levels of productivity. Since employees are in a position to deliver service value to customers, the company prides itself with high levels of customer satisfaction (Gold, 2010). Due to the high levels of satisfaction that customers
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Training And Development Analysis Essay Training and education have been increasingly conceived as contributing to the quality and productivity of work and thus the profitability of the organization. When good employees are hired, the organization is benefited by investing in their skill development. The training and development of the employees serve many purposes, apart from quality and productivity improvement. The organization becomes ready to adopt advanced technologies and is also able to find replacements when personnel move up the organization or leave it (ZeroMillion, 2002). Employees become more efficient and motivated and the organization also has adequate human resources for its expansion plans. In earlier times, people were selected and developed as managers based on knowledge of their work and understanding of the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s requirements. Workers were told on the requirements and expectations of the management, and the workers delivered it. There were no programs directed at career counseling and performance reviews. The need for stress counseling, interpersonal skills improvement, career advancement, recognition and rewarding was not felt. However in the 1950s to 1980s, the management began focusing on the need to train on core functioning areas like planning, finance, sales and accounting etc. Participants deeply involved themselves on a topic and then moved to another topic. Most management schools did not emphasize on an integrated curriculum of all topics. These managers could hardly solve problems as problems were integrated and the approach to solving them was only restricted to the topic relevant. A manager can solve problems effectively by integrating his knowledge and expertise across various domains. With wider recognition of human relations aspect in managing organizations, training programs were developed to improve efficiency and productivity through coaching, motivation, career development etc. (McNamara, 1997) Ã Today management schools review diverse management topics, analyze them, and apply that understanding to workplace requirement. Training and development play a vital role in an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s attempt of total quality (TQ). Training workshops facilitate stimulation of the attendeesÃ¢â¬â¢ interest and knowledge, which would drive them towards TQ realization. When training workshops fail to encourage the attendees towards TQ realization, then such workshops have very little or no bearing. Many management personnel believe that interest in TQ would be automatically inculcated when employees mingle and share with each other. Thus, they anticipate great positive changes with every training session. However, many people in the managerial and supervisory roles would see the impending changes as a threat to their position and authority, and therefore indulge in tactics to avoid the implementation of changes. Training can bring about changes and wonders when planned and implemented properly. It should be noted here that training is not considered necessary by all companies, as most training events and sessions cannot be directly attributed to outcomes. Therefore some managers tend to perceive training as a luxury of larger companies who can afford to absorb the costs. Training initiatives need to be related to specific outcomes (Atkinson, 1998). By appropriate planning, the trainer is focused to deliver positive and tangible outcomes. When training is managed properly, the required changes or outcomes are successfully realized. However generalized training using inappropriate material, video presentations and irrelevant case studies are more directed towards the self interest of the trainer rather than the organization. Along with technological innovation and, research and development, training and development is also one of the most important investments a company can make for its progress. The quality of the employees is determined by their experiences and exposure within the organization. When these experiences are restricted in terms of time or opportunity for development, then the employees cannot be expected to solve bigger problems. The employees only tend to keep improving their expertise within the scope of their narrow field. Training in management is similar to athletic training in several ways. In athletics, the successful coachers are those who have undergone similar experiences like those of their trainees. The coach here understands how skills are acquired and how mental blocks like attitudes, hinder effective training. The athletic coach wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t straight away plan a training strategy to make the athlete competitive for the Olympics.Ã The coachers learn the past performances of the athletes, their ups and downs and appropriately design training strategies. Similarly in management training too, the earlier experience and performance of the managers, their strengths and weaknesses are looked into, while planning their training. Past experiences and its associated success and failures, would help in predicting future behavior with and without training. Sometimes training can create problems by fueling hostility from mangers, mainly because of previous disappointments and sustained ill repute, rendering the training a waste of time and resources. However, determined policy makers can convert hostility into meaningful partnerships. Effective partnering can be developed by trainers crediting success and achievements to the managers. Historically, disappointments associated with training are less intense and take longer time to surface. This is because of the strategy adopted by trainers to play safe by ensuring their programs look successful. The trainers incorporate only standard, mild designs and methods to avoid slipping on the outcomes and attempt to camouflage this by asking for more time, staff and resource requirements. Even when managers have a slight positive attitude, there exists opportunities for better collaboration. Such managers would only demand evidence of the worth of the training. The training partner should welcome this and be ready to slow proof. Managers may sometimes want trainers to design programs or modify them to address their needs. By appropriately creating or modifying programs, a partnership is forged and strengthened. There are other managers who support training and partner with it without any critical examination. These managers donÃ¢â¬â¢t listen or speculate on informal concerns and go about answering, signing and scheduling the training. Such kind of cooperation and support would be sufficient for training programs that have been well established. However for training associated with change strategies, this support would not be sufficient. When managers presume ownership of training and are in charge of training, they assume a powerful role (Lynton and Pareek, 2000). They actively participate with the trainers and explore opportunities, options and situations for effective training. Proceeding further, managers acquire required competencies in training and join the training team. Managers have detailed understanding of the work settings and work process and their presence in the training team can be very beneficial. Preparing a training budget is an important administrative responsibility of the training manager. An organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s concern for training is reflected by the amount sanctioned for training against the requested, budgeted amount. It is important for training managers to strive hard to position training within the organization as something that would enable employees to gain what the organization wants them to acquire. Training should not be perceived by internal customers as a mere classroom program or a teaching department. When, due to any finance crunches, budget cutting is required; it would most probably come down to the training budget. However, if the organization at any later date wants to impart some training or sees a need for training, can easily bring in funds from other programs or departments. Thus learning, if deemed necessary, would always be funded. An organization funds its training programs in several ways. Some organizations have a central training budget from where funds are efficiently transferred to the training department to take care of the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s training needs. Sometimes the training department is allocated sufficient money to run its own affairs, like its departmentÃ¢â¬â¢s salaries, supplies and over heads etc. The funds required for the conduct of the programs comes from the budgets of the departments requiring the training. The training department normally raises a charge for its services. Organizations use various terminologies for its budget like budget accounts or chart of accounts; and its own terminology for budgeted items. However a typical budget for the training department includes salaries, benefits, recruitment, consulting, supplies, postage, travel, communications etc. After allocation of funds, the training department tracks its spending on the basis of the same categories. Using a spread sheet, a report is generated showing the expenses for each category in the current month, year-to-date expenses, budget amount for the year and the remainder left for the year. All organizations have their own policies and format for reporting financial data and the training manager too has to conform to this. Employees rely on training, not only to improve their expertise on their current job, but also to help them prepare for responsibilities and prospects. Each job must be designed to provide opportunities for learning and growth. The jobs must be able to enhance skill variety, incorporate task significance and also include autonomy and feedback. Job dissatisfaction is an obvious outcome caused by jobs that are seemingly unrewarding in themselves. Employee resignations and turnover is also increased when people are not trained properly. Employees begin to feel that the demands made on them cannot be fully delivered without proper training. When new employees are not provided adequate training, they experience an Ã¢â¬Ëinduction crisesÃ¢â¬â¢. Learning and training programs raise existing skills and competences among employees to expected standards, while increasing their morale and confidence. Employees must be encouraged to acquire new skills so that they can assume bigger responsibilities and perform various tasks. Such multi-tasking would also help them to earn more under skill-competency based pay structure. Training is very important when organizations experience change. All successful change implementation efforts need to be supported by enabling structures like retention programs, rewards system and outplacement programs. Retention programs are very crucial as change implementation can turn out to be a major cause for employee turn over. Employees are generally encouraged to those aspects of work, which are rewarded and discard those aspects, which are not rewarded. Thus employees can be reallocated by appropriate training. Sometimes, change implementation may involve downsizing. However, the organization should work out to ensure minimal damage by downsizing, as downsizing can jeopardize any change implementation effort. Before laying off any employee, the manager must consider if the employee has any skills that can be deployed in another position or division of the organization. Here again the prospects of training for adapting is considered. Only when the employee looks incapable of acquiring newer skills or when the employee is not very enthusiastic of training should lay off be considered. If layoff is inevitable, the organization should ensure that a comprehensive outplacement services are offered to him, so that the employee holds the organization in high esteem in his further association with the industry (Harvard, 2005). When organizations introduce technological changes, the work processes are changed and training is required to help employees to perform their new responsibilities with ease and confidence. The machine and its human operator are two complementary units of the work process, and none can replace the other. Science-driven changes are fast and multidirectional. The impact of technology and its bearing on competition is very vast. Different technologies have varying impact on management systems. Technologies used in their work processing in banking, insurance, production line etc., require system redesign and new operator skills. In steel and power generation plants, the central control is carried out by electronic technology. Genetic, bioengineering and instrumentation technology backed procedures require considerable amount of decentralization and cooperation at operator levels. Thus change of technology or introduction of new technology into the work cycle, create certain demands to redesign the work process and work environment, for which training is necessary (Saini and Khan). While training programs are mainly proposed at the employer levels, work unions can also play a crucial role in training and development. The achievements of British trade unions is a standing example of what it can achieve for its members when itÃ¢â¬â¢s focused on training and learning. During the last few years, the British trade unions have adopted training and learning as an important element of their agenda. The role of unions in establishing Ã¢â¬Ëlearning agreementsÃ¢â¬â¢ with employers, creating union learning representative (ULR) and several union learning programs are seen as success stories associated with unions. Unions have also been provided a stakeholder role in the vocational education and training system (VET). Today, most of the important institutional bodies include a formal representation of unions. Unions are represented in the learning skills council (LSC) and the sector skills council (SSC). New sector skills agreements and regional skills agreements have been formed in sectors where unions are present. The Trade Union Congress (TUC) has a formal representation on the National Skills Alliance to advice government on the implementation and progress of skills strategy. Although unions have very limited role at the policy formulation level, they have a larger new role in improving workplace learning. The establishment of the union learning representative is perceived as an innovation of the central union. The role of the representative is to support and motivate workers in taking up workplace learning. The success of workplace learning is evident from the associated facts and figures. As of December 2006, the TUC claims to have trained over 13,000 ULRs. More than 3000 workplaces have been covered with over 450 union learning projects, while over 67,000 learners benefit from these courses each year. There have also been many cases where unions have been in partnership with employers to develop learning and skills acquirement. It is important to note here that employers and employees perceive training and training success in different ways. Employers prefer to develop-specific skills that directly help their business. Union and employees on the other hand, would want to develop broad transferable skills, which can help in an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s employment and career. Such programs are very valuable to the employees and sometimes be a life changing experience for many. It helps them to advance their career, while also encouraging them to become more active in the union. A unionlearn random postal survey has highlighted an enormous latent demand for learning (Unionlearn, 2007)Ã Ã Over 96% of respondents agreed or strongly agreed that it is important to always be learning. People also wanted to take to learning for various reasons. About 81% of people wanted to study for their personal development or as a leisure time activity, while 56% wanted to learn, to benefit at their work. Sometimes workplace training is imparted remotely too through e-learning. The benefits of technology in learning is not just restricted to classroom learning alone, but also to workplace learning. The workplace trainer here needs to have appropriate teaching skills to help the understanding of remote students. The remote workplace trainer requires technology-based instructing skills, comparable to that of an academic teacher. In the coming years, probably all teachers, academic or workplace, would be trained to handle remote teaching, given the trend of e-learning. Successful e-learning for the American workforce calls for combined action by the public and private sectors. Quality issues, assessment and certification, and access to e-learning opportunities are vital areas that need to be focused to make e-learning more beneficial. Business houses need to realize the potential of e-learning and integrate e-learning into their strategies and operations. A training program is designed based on the assessed needs or requirement of the members.Ã The learning needs are separated into groups and the groups connected in a logical manner. Each group is then associated with goals or outcomes to be realized at the end of the training program. The goals are split into learning objectives, which are specific requirements that a trainee must know or be capable of, once the program is completed. For instance, if an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s needs are assessed and found that its supervisors should learn more on performance management, then the training program should have the following outcomes: 1) Supervisors should know the company policy on performance management. 2) Supervisors should manage employee performance only according to the rules and procedures of the company. 3) Supervisors must conduct themselves with the legal limits when addressing performance management issues. When a training program is to designed, it is essential that all departments are involved in it with the training department (OÃ¢â¬â¢Connor, Bronner and Delaney, 2003). A wider representation and involvement is necessary as the training outcomes would virtually affect everyone in the organization. The design team should also be represented by members from HR and Legal Departments. Based on the identified needs and the training outcomes, the duration of the training program and the modules are planned. The training professional must ensure that the program activity incorporate good instructional and adult learning principles. The program should have various activities giving priority to group work and interaction than individual readings or lectures. The programs should reflect the organizational culture while being focused on individual learning. The design of the training program should have relevance to the experience and knowledge existing already with the participants. The program should stop once the required learning has been accomplished. Segmenting a designed program helps the training team and the participants to focus on packets of contents, one at a time, for more clarity. The program content may be divided into days, with each day divided into units and each unit divided into modules. The effectiveness of a training session can be evaluated by several parameters. The training can be said to be efficient and effective when it has achieved its objectives. The validity of the training is determined by ascertaining whether the training has been able to solve problems associated with output, service and outflow. The validity of the training program is also seen from the perspective of the participants, whether it has met their needs.Ã The training program is evaluated by measuring the overall cost benefit of the program while validation is the judgment of objectives achievement. Using a series of tests and assessments, internal validation can be carried out to ascertain whether the participants have acquired knowledge, skills or experienced attitude modification. Common measuring instruments are the opinion of the attendees, opinion of trainers, opinion of managers and opinion of peers and colleagues.Ã The knowledge gained by training can also assessed through oral, written, objective or practical tests. The skills acquired can be assessed by asking the trainee to demonstrate the skills with a checklist and without a checklist, before judges (Ramaswami, 1992). The checklist must reflect the actions or procedures required to be performed. The attitudes of trainees are measured by actual observation of behavior, by judges, or by an attitude scale for reference. Apart from the training imparted, it has been perceived that certain attributes of the trainer itself can contribute to the influence of the participants. When the trainer is prepared and confident, the participants are convinced and feel at ease. When the trainer is enthusiastic and purpose-oriented, the trainees become interested and get a clear objective. The responsibility and involvement in enhancing productivity has gradually shifted from the management level executives to the capable and knowledgeable workers. The management facilitates and encourages workers to work independently and determine ways of doing things in a better way. This approach is significantly different from its earlier approach of controlling and instructing workers. The management also wants its employees to share their knowledge and expertise with others so that the organization benefits from the new knowledge. With more work being automated, workers have to think of ways and techniques appropriate to the speed and requirements of the automated facility. Learning is necessary to realize and understand better, the ways to doing things that would benefit the customer. Learning is very different from training, which is imparting of skills required for a particular task or work requirement. Learning is an ongoing process, which doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t require exclusive sessions or classes; and is perhaps the heart of productive activity (Thite, 2004). Given the globalization and intense competition in the market place, a suitable idea from anyone is appreciated as long as it contributes to process improvement. Ideas even help transform organizations by breaking new grounds. People are encouraged to think of solutions and apply them to their daily work. Organizations need to realize the power of learning and benefit from it to successfully face global competition. REFERENCES Unionlearn.(2007) The role of trade unions in the formation and distribution of learning and skills, [Electronic Version] downloaded on 12th May, 2008 from http://www.unionlearn.org.uk/policy/learn-2042-f0.pdf ZeroMillion (2002). Employee training and Development [Electronic Version] downloaded on 13th May, 2008 from 4. Employee Training and Development McNamara C. (1997) Brief History of Management training and Development. [Electronic Version] downloaded on 13th May, 2008 from http://www.managementhelp.org/mgmt_dev/history/history.htm Atkinson P., (1998) Creating Culture Change; Strategies for Success, Jaico Publishing House OÃ¢â¬â¢Connor, Bronner and Delaney (2003) Training for Organizations, Thomson Learning, Singapore Ramaswami N, (1992) A Handbook of Training Development, T.R. Publications Lynton R.P, Pareek U., (2000) Training for Organizational Transformation Sage Publications Ã Harvard (2005), The Essentials of Managing Change and Transition. Publisher: Harvard Business School Press. Thite M., (2004). Managing People in the New Economy. Response Books. Sage Publication Saini D.S, Khan S.A., (2000), (Eds) Human Resource Management. Perspectives for the New Era, Publisher: Response Books, Year of publication 2000.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
In a well-written short story, different literary elements and terms are incorporated into the story by the author. Ernest Hemingway frequently uses various literary elements in his writing to entice the reader and enhance each piece that he writes. In Hills Like White Elephants, Hemingway uses symbols to teach the reader certain things that one may encounter during daily life. Symbolism may be defined as relating to, using, or proceeding by means of symbols (Princeton). The use of symbols in Hills Like White Elephants is utterly important to the plot line and to the fundamental meaning of the story. Through this use of symbolism, the reader can begin to reveal the hidden themes in this short story. Hemingway provides the reader with insight into this story, before it is even read, through the title. The girl in the story mentions the hills that can be seen from the train station and describes them as looking like white elephants. Jig is at a crossroads in her life, accompanied by her partner. She is pregnant and cannot decide whether to choose life for the baby, or to get an abortion. Throughout the story, she experiences persistent uncertainty over what she wants to do with her life. Whatever decision she makes will have a drastic impact in her later years as a woman. While seated at the bar inside the train station, the girl says, Ã¢â¬Å"The hills look like white elephantsÃ¢â¬ (Hemingway). The hills that are spotted in the distance directly parallel the decision that Jig must make. Critic Kenneth Johnston was recorded stating, Ã¢â¬Å"A white elephant is a rare pale-gray variety of an Asian elephant held sacred by the Burmese and Siamese. The girlÃ¢â¬â¢s reverence for lif e is captured by this meaning of the phrase.Ã¢â¬ Johnston also says, Ã¢â¬Å"A white ... ...ephants.Ã¢â¬ Studies in American Fiction. Vol. 10. No. 2. Gale Group, 1999. 233-238. Web. 8 Jan. 2015. Link, Alex. Staking Everything on It: A stylistic Analysis f Linguistic Patterns in Ã¢â¬Å"Hills Like White Elephants.Ã¢â¬ . The Hemmingway Review. 23.2 (Spring 2004); 66-74. Rpt. In Twentieth-Century Literary Critisism. Vol. 203. Detroit; Gale, 66-74. Literature Resources from Gale. Gale. . 12 Jan. 2015 Rankin, Paul. HemmingwayÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Hills Like White Elephants.Ã¢â¬ Explicator. 63.4 (Summer 2005): 234-237. Rpt. In Short Story Critisism. Ed. Jelena O. Krstovic. Vol. 117. Detroit: Gale, 234-237. Literature Resources from Gale. Gale. . 12 Jan. 2015. Ã¢â¬Å"SymbolismÃ¢â¬ . WordNet - About WordNet. Web. 25 Jan. 2015. . Ã¢â¬Å"TrainÃ¢â¬ . University of Michigan. Web. 19 Jan 2015. .
Monday, January 13, 2020
Article Summary: Authentic leadership for 21st century project delivery from the International Journal of Project Management APA citation: Lloyd-Walker, Beverley1 beverley. [emailÃ protected] edu. au Walker, Derek(2). International Journal of Project Management; May2011, Vol. 29 Issue 4, p383-395. Retrieved from EBSCOhost, summarized by Rachell Bishop. Summary: The project managers of the 21st century will need to adopt new leadership models to sustain continuous improvement. There are three primary points that the article & study present.CMM (Capability maturity model), Authentic leadership and Alliance project management are at the forefront of the study. The importance of soft skills such as emotional intelligence, relationship building, trust and commitment are emphasized rather than the hard core technical skills held by project managers in general. The necessity to transition from transactional and transformational leadership styles to authentic leadership style is presented in detail. The authors noted the differences in leadership approaches and skill sets that will be necessary for project managers to be successful and remain relevant in the future. . Leadership styles: Transactional, Transformational and Authentic 2. CMM (Capability maturity model): Integration of transactional and transformational leadership styles resulting in authentic leadership paradigm 3. Alliancing: Demonstrated team building and cooperation among project management professionals to achieve optimal project delivery for all not just key stakeholders 4. Authentic leadership soft skills Ã¢â¬â overall emotional intelligence as demonstrated through ethical and moral actions, integrity and clarity in words and behavior, honesty, fairness and relational development 5.Generational shift: Baby Boomer, Gen X and Gen Y valuation of leadership skill sets must be addressed 6. Project managers and leaders: project-based versus project-oriented 7. Implementation: Communication and engage ment of all stakeholders is key The pilot study and preliminary research results concluded that there are major changes necessary for project management to evolve and remain relevant in the 21st century workplace. Authentic leadership, a CMM plan and soft skills are particularly relevant for the continuous improvement of the project management field.
Sunday, January 5, 2020
Jim Thorpe (May 28, 1888Ã¢â¬âMarch 28, 1953) is remembered as one of the greatest athletes of all time and one of the most celebrated Native Americans in modern times. At the 1912 Olympics, Jim Thorpe accomplished the unprecedented feat of winning gold medals in both the pentathlon and the decathlon. Although he was stripped of his medals due to a violation of his amateur status prior to the Olympics, Thorpe went on to play both professional baseball and football and was an especially gifted football player. Fast Facts: Jim Thorpe Known For: Jim Thorpe was a native American athlete known for his Olympic gold medals in the pentathlon and the decathlon.Also Known As: James Francis Thorpe, Wa-tho-huk (Native American name meaning Bright Path), and The Worlds Greatest AthleteBorn: May 28, 1888 in Prague, OklahomaParents: Hiram Thorpe and Charlotte VieuxDied: March 28, 1953 in Lomita, CaliforniaEducation: Carlisle Indian Industrial School, Haskell Indian Junior CollegeAwards and Honors: Gold medals in the pentathlon and decathlon (later stripped because of amateur status violation)Spouse(s): Iva Miller, Freeda Kirkpatrick, Patricia AskewChildren: 8Notable Quote: I am no more proud of my career as an athlete than I am of the fact that I am a direct descendant of that noble warrior [Chief Black Hawk]. Early Life Jim Thorpe and his twin brother Charlie were born on May 28, 1888, in Prague, Oklahoma to Hiram Thorpe and Charlotte Vieux. Both parents were of mixed Native American and European heritage. Hiram and Charlotte had a total of 11 children, six of whom died in early childhood. On his fathers side, Jim Thorpe was related to the great warrior Black Hawk, whose people (the Sac and Fox tribe) had originally come from the Lake Michigan region. (They were forced by the United States government to resettle in the Oklahoma Indian Territory in 1869.) The Thorpes lived in a log farmhouse on the Sac and Fox reservation, where they grew crops and raised livestock. Although most members of their tribe wore traditional native clothing and spoke the Sac and Fox language, the Thorpes adopted many customs of white people. They wore standard American clothing and spoke English at home. (English was the only language Jims parents had in common.) Charlotte, who was part French and part Potawatomi Indian, insisted that her children be raised as Roman Catholics. The twins did everything together, including fishing, hunting, wrestling, and horseback riding. At the age of 6, Jim and Charlie were sent to the reservation school, a boarding school run by the federal government 20 miles away. Following the prevailing racist ideas of the timesÃ¢â¬âthat whites were superior to Native AmericansÃ¢â¬âstudents were taught to live in the manner of white people and forbidden to speak their native language. Although the twins were different in temperament (Charlie was studious, whereas Jim preferred sports), they were very close. Sadly, when the boys were 8, an epidemic swept through their school and Charlie fell sick and died in late 1896. Jim was devastated. He lost interest in school and sports and repeatedly ran away from school. A Troubled Youth Hiram sent Jim to Haskell Indian Junior College in 1898 in an effort to discourage him from running away. The government-run school, located 300 miles away in Lawrence, Kansas, operated on a military system, with students wearing uniforms and following a strict set of regulations. Although he chafed at the idea of being told what to do, Thorpe made an attempt to fit in at Haskell. After watching the varsity football team at Haskell, Thorpe was inspired to organize football games with other boys at the school. Leaving School Thorpes adherence to his fathers wishes didnt last. In the summer of 1901, Thorpe heard his father had been seriously hurt in a hunting accident and, in a hurry to get home, left Haskell without permission. At first, Thorpe hopped on a train, but it was unfortunately headed in the wrong direction. After getting off the train, he walked most of the way home, hitching rides occasionally. After his two-week trek, Thorpe arrived home only to discover that his father was recovered yet very angry about what his son had done. Despite his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s fury, Thorpe chose to stay on his fathers farm and help out instead of returning to Haskell. Only a few months later, Thorpes mother died from blood poisoning following childbirth (the infant died as well). Thorpe and his entire family were devastated. After his motherÃ¢â¬â¢s death, tensions within the family grew. After an especially bad argumentÃ¢â¬âfollowed by a beating from his fatherÃ¢â¬âThorpe left home and headed to Texas. There, at the age of 13, Thorpe found work taming wild horses. He loved the work and managed to support himself for a year. Upon his return home, Thorpe discovered that he had earned his fathers respect. This time, Thorpe agreed to enroll in a nearby public school, where he participated in baseball and track and field. With seemingly little effort, Thorpe excelled at whatever sport he attempted. The Carlisle Indian School In 1904, a representative from the Carlisle Indian Industrial School in Pennsylvania came to the Oklahoma Territory looking for candidates for the trade school. (Carlisle had been founded by an army officer in 1879 as a vocational boarding school for young Native Americans.) Thorpes father convinced Jim to enroll at Carlisle, knowing there were few opportunities available for him in Oklahoma. Thorpe entered the Carlisle School in June 1904 at age 16. He had hoped to become an electrician, but because Carlisle didnt offer that course of study, Thorpe opted to become a tailor. Not long after hed begun his studies, Thorpe received staggering news. His father had died of blood poisoning, the same illness that had taken his mothers life. Thorpe coped with his loss by immersing himself in the Carlisle tradition known as outing, in which students were sent to live with (and work for) white families in order to learn white customs. Thorpe went on three such ventures, spending several months at a time working in roles such as a gardener and farm worker. School Sports Thorpe returned to school from his last outing in 1907, having grown taller and more muscular. He joined an intramural football team, where his impressive performance gained the attention of coaches in both football and track and field. Thorpe joined the varsity track team in 1907 and later the football team. Both sports were coached by football coaching legend Glenn Pop Warner. In track and field, Thorpe excelled in every event and often broke records at meets. Thorpe also led his small school to football victories over larger, more famous colleges, including Harvard and West Point. Among the opposing players he met on the field was future president Dwight D. Eisenhower of West Point. The 1912 Olympics In 1910, Thorpe decided to take a break from school and find a way to earn money. During two consecutive summers (1910 and 1911), Thorpe accepted an offer to play minor league baseball in North Carolina. It was a decision he would come to regret deeply. In the fall of 1911, Pop Warner convinced Jim to return to Carlisle. Thorpe had another stellar football season, earning recognition as a first-team All-American halfback. In the spring of 1912, Thorpe re-joined the track and field team with a new goal in mind: he would begin training for a spot on the U.S. Olympic team in track and field. Pop Warner believed that Thorpes all-around skills would make him an ideal candidate for the decathlonÃ¢â¬âa grueling competition comprised of 10 events. Thorpe qualified for both the pentathlon and decathlon for the American team. The 24-year-old set sail for Stockholm, Sweden in June 1912. At the Olympics, Thorpes performance surpassed all expectations. He dominated in both the pentathlon and decathlon, winning gold medals in both events. (He remains the only athlete in history to have done so.) His record-breaking scores handily beat all of his rivals and would remain unbroken for three decades. Upon his return to the United States, Thorpe was hailed as a hero and honored with a ticker-tape parade in New York City. Jim ThorpeÃ¢â¬â¢s Olympic Scandal At Pop Warners urging, Thorpe returned to Carlisle for the 1912 football season, during which he helped his team achieve 12 wins and only one loss. Thorpe began his last semester at Carlisle in January 1913. He looked forward to a bright future with his fiancÃ ©e Iva Miller, a fellow student at Carlisle. In late January of that year, a newspaper article surfaced in Worcester, Massachusetts claiming that Thorpe had earned money playing professional baseball and therefore could not be considered an amateur athlete. Because only amateur athletes could participate in the Olympics at that time, the International Olympic Committee stripped Thorpe of his medals and his records were erased from the books. Thorpe readily admitted that he had played in the minor leagues and had been paid a small salary. He also admitted ignorance of the fact that playing baseball would make him ineligible to compete in track and field events at the Olympics. Thorpe later learned that many college athletes played on professional teams during the summer, but they played under assumed names in order to maintain their amateur status in school. Going Pro in Baseball A mere 10 days after losing his Olympic medals, Thorpe turned professional for good, withdrawing from Carlisle and signing a contract to play major league baseball with the New York Giants. Baseball wasnt Thorpes strongest sport, but the Giants knew that his name would sell tickets. After spending some time in the minors improving his skills, Thorpe started the 1914 season with the Giants. Thorpe and Iva Miller married in October 1913. They had their first child, James Jr., in 1915, followed by three daughters over the eight years of their marriage. The Thorpes suffered the loss of James, Jr. to polio in 1918. Thorpe spent three years with the Giants and then played for the Cincinnati Reds and later the Boston Braves. His major league career ended in 1919 in Boston; he played minor league baseball for another nine years, retiring from the game in 1928 at the age of 40. Football Career During his time as a baseball player, Thorpe also played professional football beginning in 1915. Thorpe played halfback for the Canton Bulldogs for six years, leading them to many major victories. A multi-talented player, Thorpe was proficient at running, passing, tackling, and even kicking. Thorpes punts averaged an incredible 60 yards. Thorpe later played for the Oorang Indians (an all-Native American team) and The Rock Island Independents. By 1925, the 37-year-olds athletic skills had begun to decline. Thorpe announced his retirement from pro football in 1925, although he did play occasionally for various teams over the next four years. Life After Sports Thorpe divorced Iva Miller in 1923 and married Freeda Kirkpatrick in October 1925. During their 16-year marriage, they had four sons together. Thorpe and Freeda divorced in 1941. Thorpe struggled to stay employed after leaving professional sports. He moved from state to state, working as a painter, security guard, and ditch digger. Thorpe tried out for some movie roles but was awarded only a few cameos, mainly playing Indian chiefs. Thorpe lived in Los Angeles when the 1932 Olympics came to the city but he did not have enough money to buy a ticket to the Summer Games. When the press reported Thorpes predicament, Vice President Charles Curtis, himself of Native American descent, invited Thorpe to sit with him. When Thorpes presence was announced to the crowd, he was honored with a standing ovation. As public interest in the former Olympian grew, Thorpe began to receive offers for speaking engagements. He earned little money for his appearances but enjoyed giving inspiring speeches to young people. The speaking tour, however, kept Thorpe away from his family for long periods of time. Later Years In 1937, Thorpe returned to Oklahoma to promote the rights of Native Americans. He joined a movement to abolish the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), the government entity that oversaw all aspects of life on reservations. The Wheeler Bill, which would allow native peoples to manage their own affairs, failed to pass in the legislature. During World War II, Thorpe worked as a security guard at a Ford auto plant. He suffered a heart attack in 1943 only a year after taking the job, prompting him to resign. In June 1945, Thorpe married Patricia Askew. Soon after the wedding, 57-year-old Jim Thorpe enlisted in the merchant marines and was assigned to a ship that carried ammunition to Allied forces. After the war, Thorpe worked for the Chicago Park Districts recreation department, promoting fitness and teaching track skills to young people. The 1951 Hollywood film Jim Thorpe, All-American starred Burt Lancaster and told ThorpeÃ¢â¬â¢s story. Thorpe served as technical advisor for the film, although he made no money from the film itself. Death In September 1952, Thorpe suffered a second, more serious heart attack. He recovered, but the following year he suffered a third, fatal heart attack on March 28, 1953, at the age of 64 in Lomita, California. Thorpe is buried in a mausoleum in Jim Thorpe, Pennsylvania, a town that agreed to change its name in order to win the privilege of housing Thorpes memorial. Legacy In 1950, Thorpe was voted by Associated Press sportswriters as the greatest football player of the half-century. Just months later, he was honored as the best male athlete of the half-century. His competition for the title included sports legends such as Babe Ruth, Jack Dempsey, and Jesse Owens. Later that same year he was inducted into the Professional Football Hall of Fame. Three decades after Thorpes death, the International Olympic Committee reversed its decision and issued duplicate medals to Jim Thorpes children in 1983. Thorpes achievements have been re-entered into Olympic record books and he is now widely acknowledged as one of the greatest athletes of all time. Sources Birchfield, D. L.Ã Jim Thorpe, Worlds Greatest Athlete.Ã Modern Curriculum Press, 1994.Buford, Kate. Native American Son: The Life and Sporting Legend of Jim Thorpe. Knopf,Ã 2010.
Friday, December 27, 2019
Safari 3: Education in Indiana Mikayla Moore SWK-S 141, 9:30 Ã¢â¬â 10:45am Professor McAlister March 06, 2017 What tools are used to measure school and teacher performance? Indiana is in the making of a massive education reform effort that includes that creation of vouchers, increasing charter schools and adopting a new system to hold schools accountable. Reformers are predicting that large numbers of bad teachers will be tossed out, good teachers will be rewarded, and teacher quality will be raised in classrooms across Indiana. The legislature that was passed last year will evolve in required annual evaluations, that will work by: Ã¢â¬Å"Teachers across the state will be rated 1 through 4, with 1 being the lowest. Those ratings willÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Multiple-choice tests, in particular, are graded by machine and therefore are not subject to human subjectivity or biasÃ¢â¬ (ProCon, pg.55). Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬Å"20 school systems that have achieved significant, sustained, and widespread gains on national and international assessments used proficiency targets for each school and frequent, standardized testing to monitor system progress, according to a Nov. 2010 report by McKinsey Company, a global management consulting firmÃ¢â¬ (ProCon, pg. 146) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Standardized tests are inclusive and non-discriminatory because they ensure content is equivalent for all students. Former Washington, DC, schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s chancellor Michelle Rhee argues that using alternate tests for minorities or exempting children with disabilities would be unfair to those students: You can t separate them, and to try to do so creates two, unequal systems, one with accountability and one without it. This is a civil rights issue (ProCon, pg. 103) Cons: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬Å"Standardized testing has not improved student achievement. After No Child Left Behind (NCLB) passed in 2002, the US slipped from 18th in the world in math on the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) to 31st place in 2009, with a similar drop in science and no change in reading.Ã¢â¬ (ProCon, pg. 95, 145, 144) Ã¢â¬Å"A May 26, 2011, National Research Council report found no evidence test-based incentive programs are working: Despite using them for several decades, policymakers and educators do notShow MoreRelatedThe Shortcomings of Standardized Testing1636 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagespassed the No Child Left Behind program, standardized testing has become the norm for American schools. Under this system, each child attending a school is required to take a standardized test at specific grade points to assess their level of comprehension. Parents, scholars and all stakeholders involved take part in constant discussions over its effectiveness in evaluating stu dentsÃ¢â¬â¢ comprehension, teachersÃ¢â¬â¢ competency and the effects of the test on the education system. Though these tests were putRead MoreEssay about Assessment Ell951 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Methodologies September 22, 2011 ELL Assessments Assessment is a valuable tool to measure students learning and achievement. It is an essential element for teacher to reflect on what and how they teach. To assess students is to collect evidence of their learning. Teachers use the information to modify their lesson plans and adjust their instructional methods; students need feedback on their performance to concentrate on their vulnerable areas. Assessment is necessary for parents to reinforceRead MoreThe No Child Left Behind952 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesgrade levelsÃ¢â¬ (Breiner, 2015). Since then, summative tests have been used to assess the achievement of students and increase accountability for both the schools and teachers (Kubiszyn Borich, 2013, p. 15-25). These summative tests, also referred to as high-stakes tests, are given annually to students in third to ninth grade in language arts, math, and reading (Roach, 2014; Shepard, 2003). There are critics stating that teachers are only teaching to these high-stakes tests, implying that there isRead MoreThe Function Of Education Is The Goal Of True Education1423 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagespolicy debates concerning school improvement and individual student achievement. A review found that SEL programs improved studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ performance in the classroom, not just their emotional performance. Specifically, they found an increase of 11% to 17% in test scores (1). SEL has just recently made it into mainstream educational curriculum, but at many schools, including Stevenson, they haven t found an efficient way to asses the SEL standings of individual students. Tools to assess social and emotionalRead MoreThe Goals Of The Goal Of Education Essay1244 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesneed to be successful after completing high school. Teachers are responsible for critiquing their students, and making sure that their students learn the required objectives in order to advance to the next grade. There are several ways for students to show mastery of lesson objectives to advan ce to the next grade. I will present information regarding how students demonstrate mastery of content objectives on knowledge, and performance tests. The teachers in the classroom are responsible for providingRead MoreThe Challenges Of Learning That Teachers And Students Are Being Faced With Now1268 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThis article examines the challenges of learning that teachers and students are being faced with now in the Ã¢â¬Å"traditionalÃ¢â¬ classroom. It is believed that students are not being able to use their Ã¢â¬Å"higher-orderÃ¢â¬ thinking because they are not being provided with contextual support that enables them to actually apply what they are being taught. It has been said that the lack of focus on higher order learning is due to the state standardized testing that the students are required to take each year. Read MoreHow Leadership Teams Are Responsible And Accountable For Implementing Improvement Strategies782 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAs teachers, we would never consider teaching an entire unit to our students without frequently checking on their understanding, monitoring their progress, providing additio nal support, and finally evaluating their performance. It is important to hold ourselves to the same level of accountability. Leadership teams are responsible and accountable for the progress that the students make under their supervision and care. Administration teams must carefully monitor the progress of the stakeholdersRead MoreAccountability Is The Process Of Evaluating School Performances On The Basis Of Student Performance766 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"Accountability is the process of evaluating school performances on the basis of student performance, according to Figlio and Loeb in the online article, School Accountability. Accountability has become the main focus of education. Everyone is being held accountable. It starts with the district, then the administration, teachers, and even the students are being held more accountable than ever before. Figlio and Loeb state that, Ã¢â¬Å" Accountability in Education is a broad concept that can be addressedRead MoreEssay about Performance Based Pay for Teachers1209 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesgrants, provided that certain education reform was taking place within statesÃ¢â¬â¢ schools. One particular condition under this campaign has led to much debate within our educati on system, implementing a pay system based on a teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s academic performance and the methods used to determine this (US Dept of Education). There are many ways to compile data on a teacher and determine that personÃ¢â¬â¢s performance. Teacher performance can be based upon classroom observation, a teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s continuing developmentRead MoreStandardized Assessments Are Being Criticized As Inappropriate When Measuring Student Performance1428 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesinappropriate when measuring student performance. This criticism has led to the new school of thought Ã¢â¬Å"thoughtful assessmentÃ¢â¬ thereby leading to authentic assessment, emphasizing that all assessments must be done with learners in mind. The ensuing paper will look at the definitions of authentic assessment and performance assessment; present a design of an authentic, performance-based assessment for reading by Grade 6 English as second language learners. A media tools will be used to illustrate this measurement
Thursday, December 19, 2019
Music composed for television generate another realm of modes and codes that differ even from the coding within film. Television has the opportunity to utilise music as an instrument for supporting narratives within television series and as means for marketing through commercials. Blaine Allan, explores the relationship between music and television within his journal article, Music Cinema, Music Video, Music Television. The main focal point of this resource is the function of visual aspects within the introduction of music videos. However, Blaine Allan does include an interesting insight into the role of music within other areas of television. Allan s fundamental argument is to highlight the need for analysis into these music videos in order to gain an understanding of how the visual and music components are composed and integrated. Individuals researching into the mechanics of music videos are the primary intended audience, however musicians would benefit from this information as we ll. This source, therefore, provides a number of compelling arguments and concepts, especially in regard to music videos, that explain the differing codes perceived with the addition of the visual element. Blaine Allan does hold credibility within this field and thus provides a good sense of reliability which is enhanced by his objective view throughout the article. However, this journal positions at a low range in regard to usefulness as the arguments within this essay do not focus around thisShow MoreRelatedThe Music Of Music Videos1557 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe development of music videos throughout many years has changed rapidly due to the relationship between media forms and platforms of different media kind of texts. Some issues in contemporary music videos are from the evolution of new technologies, social media and politics. 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The genre of the song was new wave, which was popular at the time, and the instrumentationRead MoreThe Video Is A Music Video1091 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMe!Me!Me! is a music video and animated short that was created for the Japan Animator Expo in 2014, but was released in the US in 2015 through Vimeo with English subtitles. The song in the video was made by the electronic music artist Teddyloid feat. Daoko, a Japanese singer. The audience of this video would be all fans of anime and electronic music, i.e. presumably young people who proactively use electronic devices. The video is set in three main sequences, each revolving around the main characterRead MoreMusic in Video Games1382 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesMusic In Video Games Throughout the history of the video game industry, there has been many changes concerning music in video games. Music in video games progressed greatly within the life of the industry from 1972 to the present. 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TheRead MoreThe Music Video For Their Anthem920 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Kendrick Lamar Duckworth often references the experience of sitting on his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s shoulders at the age of 8, watching West coast hip-hop legends Dr. Dre and Tupac film the music video for their anthem to the Golden State, Ã¢â¬Å"California LoveÃ¢â¬ as the spark that ignited his creative bonfire. Born on June 17, 1987 to couple who moved from Chicago to Compton with only $500 to their names in order to escape the gang lifestyle, Lamar was exposed to guns, drugs, and violence at a young age. Ã¢â¬Å"I m 6 yearsRead MoreEntertainment Media Ethics : Music And Music Videos8248 Words Ã |Ã 33 PagesENTERTAINMENT MEDIA ETHICS: MUSIC AND MUSIC VIDEOS SECTION ONE: INTRODUCTION Music is an important part of life. Its role as a form of art and entertainment is a significant one but more important is that it serves to reflect and reinforce societal norms and values. It is not only used to entertain but also serves as a form of social commentary (Baran, 2009). For instance, the emergence of Rhythm and Blues (RB) in America after the Second World War was a means of advancing the black race and itRead More Music In Video Games Essay1361 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Music In Video Games nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Throughout the history of the video game industry, there has been many changes concerning music in video games. Music in video games progressed greatly within the life of the industry from 1972 to the present. These progressions can be seen as improvements in quality which includes an increase in the number of output channels, an increase in song length, a great improvement in the quality of timbres, and also a general shift from non- programmatic